Aviation Terminology

Horizontal SurfaceThe plane 150’ above the established ARP for utility or visual runway surface extends 5000’ all others 10,000’
Conical SurfaceExtends 4000’ past where the horizontal surface ends – slope is 20/1 – every 20 ‘ in horizontal surface distance increases in height by 1’.
Transitional SurfaceConnects obstacle surfaces together -- connects approach surface to horizontal and conical.
Runway TypesVisual - No instrumental procedures – intended solely for aircraft using visual approach procedures w/no straight-in instrument approach procedures (existing or planned)
Non-Precision Instrument - Runway has an existing or planned instrument approach procedure utilizing air navigation facilities with only horizontal guidance or area type navigational equipment (VOR, NDB, GPS) Straight-in only.
Precision - Has existing or planned instrument approach procedure utilizing an ILS, MLS or PAR. Horizontal & vertical guidance.
Types of VORsVOR - Basic Navigational facility provides lateral information signals
VOR/DME - Lateral information and distance (DME) straight line distance from station
TACAN - Tactical Air Navigation – used by military – requires airborne military TACAN receivers
Slopes50/1 Precision
34/1 Non-Precision
20/1 Conical
LocalizerA localizer is one component of an ILS or Instrument Landing System. The localizer usually provides runway centerline guidance to aircraft. In some cases a localizer is at an angle to the runway usually due to obstructions around the airport. Localizers also exist in stand-alone instrument approach installations and are not always part of an ILS or Instrument Landing System.
ASDEAirport Surface Detection Equipment-- enables air traffic controllers to detect potential runway conflicts by providing detailed coverage of movement on runways and taxiways, by collecting data from a variety of sources.
RTRRemote Transmitter/Receiver
ASRAirport surveillance radar systems are capable of reliably detecting and tracking aircraft at altitudes below 25,000 feet (7,620 meters) and within 40 to 60 nautical miles (75 to 110 km) of their airport.
A ground radio station consisting of a collocated very-high-frequency Omnidirectional radio range (VOR) and TACAN facility; this station permits obtaining polar coordinates by the use of VOR receiver and distance-measuring equipment, or by TACAN equipment alone.

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